Course Objectives

Each course module has specific objectives to complete. These are the objectives:


Regulations

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Identify the philosophical trends related to PAMs and Occupational Therapy.
  • Outline the relationship between PAMs and the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework.
  • Discuss the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc., position on physical agent modality use and educational preparation.
  • Identify your state‚Äôs regulatory agencies which govern the use of physical agents by occupational therapy practitioners and read the rules and regulations.
  • Provide a common lexicon for PAM use in OT.
  • Provide an overview of commonly used PAMS in OT.

Superficial Anatomy

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Define the normal anatomy of the skin.
  • Describe the somatosensory system.
  • List the function of normal skin.
  • Detail the effects of aging on the sensory system.

Wound Healing

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Classify types of soft tissue injuries.
  • Address the three phases of repair (inflammation, proliferation, and maturation).
  • Discuss the cellular processes occurring in each phase.
  • Review appropriate intervention methods based on research findings.
  • Describe complications that interfere with normal healing.

Pain Theory and Perception

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Define the type or category of pain.
  • Describe primary causes of the pain.
  • List the factors that contribute to pain.
  • Discuss assessment and intervention strategies available for the pain conditions.
  • Describe other medical or psychosocial conditions which should influence the choice of treatment of pain conditions.

Cryotherapy

At the end of this module, you will:

  • List the biophysical and biophysiological changes which occur with Cryotherapy.
  • Identify the indications, contraindications and precautions for the application of cold agents.
  • Demonstrate the clinical reasoning involved in the application of cold agents.
  • Identify commonly used types of cold agents.
  • Describe the application procedures for each cold modality presented in this module.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of cryotherapy agents.
  • Discuss essential elements of documentation for cryotherapy agents.

Superficial Heat Agents

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Define the term superficial thermal agent.
  • Differentiate between the two commonly used methods of heat transfer: conduction and convection.
  • Discuss the four biophysical effects of heat.
  • Describe the physiologic response to tissue secondary to temperature elevation.
  • Differentiate between mild, moderate and vigorous dosages of heat.
  • List indications, precautions, and contraindications that should be considered when using superficial thermal agents.
  • Describe the proper clinical applications for hot packs, paraffin bath, fluidotherapy, light, whirlpool, and contrast bath.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of superficial thermal agents.
  • Discuss the essential elements of documentation for superficial thermal agents.

Deep Heat Modalities

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Discuss the theory and rationale for the application of therapeutic deep thermal modalities (such as ultrasound, low level laser therapy [LLLT], diathermy, and phonophoresis).
  • Outline and differentiate between the parameters for therapeutic ultrasound.
  • Outline current research trends in the utilization of deep thermal modalities.
  • Demonstrate clinical decision making in the determination of the appropriate treatment parameters for deep thermal modalities.
  • Discuss the clinical procedures for the application of deep thermal modalities.
  • Present guidelines for the safe use of deep thermal modalities stating contraindications and precautions for treatment.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of deep thermal agents.
  • Discuss essential elements of documentation for deep thermal agents.

Principles of Electrotherapy

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Identify the relationship between technical terminology and sensory responses.
  • Describe the biophysical and biophysiological changes associated with electrotherapy.
  • Discuss the available parameters of electrical stimulation devices\describe the principles and concepts of electricity.
  • Identify the physiological effects of electrical stimulation using alternating current, direct current, and pulsatile current.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Define the therapeutic goals of electrical therapy.
  • Identify the physiological events associated with electrical stimulation.
  • Define the distinguishing characteristic and indications and contraindications of electrical stimulation.
  • Distinguish the physiological effects of various parameters of electrical stimulation (voltage, type, dosage, duty cycle, etc.).
  • Discuss the therapeutic relationship of electrotherapy with other therapeutic procedures.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

Neuromuscular Electrical Nerve Stimulation

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Describe the clinical application of electrical stimulation in rehabilitation.
  • Outline and discuss the clinical reasoning process used to determine selection of NMES and appropriate parameters.
  • Describe the intervention parameters of therapeutic electrical currents for re-education, strengthening, spasticity reduction, FES etc.
  • Identify the biophysiological responses to electrical currents for alternating and direct current modalities.
  • Discuss the indications and contraindications for NMES use.
  • Identify appropriate electrode placement for various intervention protocols.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
  • Discuss essential elements of documentation for neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

Iontophoresis

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Describe the clinical applications for iontophoresis.
  • Discuss the biophysiology and mechanism related to transdermal delivery of medication.
  • Identify common medications used in iontophoresis and their pharmacological characteristics.
  • Outline clinical decision-making regarding iontophoresis, indications and precautions.
  • Discuss appropriate patient education procedures for safe application of iontophoresis.
  • Discuss essential elements of documentation for iontophoresis.

Pharmacology

At the end of this module, you will:

  • Discuss the following processes in pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, and metabolism.
  • Explain the processes of pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutics as it pertains to routine drugs used in Phonophoresis and Iontophoresis.
  • Discuss the effects of physical agents, exercise, and manual techniques on pharmacokinetics.
  • Discuss the aging process as it relates to pharmacokinetics.